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Foreign Languages Publishing House 
Pyongyang, Korea 



After carefully considering the position and importance of 
cinematic art in the revolution and construction, dear Comrade 
Kim Jong II wrote the treatise "Theory of Cinematic Art" which 
clarifies the theoretical and practical problems of cinematic art as a 

This treatise gives a comprehensive and detailed account of all 
the aspects of creating and developing this form of art, such as life 
and literature, the cinema and directing, the character and the actor, 
images and shooting, the screen and fine art, scenery and music, art 
and creative work creation and guidance and so on. 

We are publishing "The Cinema and Directing" to follow "Life 
and Literature" from this "Theory of Cinematic Art" in a number of 


The Director Is the Commander of the Creative Group 1 

One Must Aim High In Creation 13 

Emotions Should Be Well Defined in Directing 22 

Acting Depends on the Director 32 

Exacting Demands Should Be Made in Filming and Art Design 40 

The Best Use Should Be Made of Music and Sound 47 

The Secret of Directing lies in Editing 55 

The Assistant Director Is a Creative Worker 62 

" Like the leading article of the Party paper, the 
cinema should have great appeal and move ahead 
of the realities. Thus, it should play a mobilizing 
role in each stage of the revolutionary struggle." 



If cinematic art is to be developed to meet the requirements of 
the Juche age, it is necessary to bring about a fundamental change 
in film-making. From the time of the emergence of cinema art to 
this day, many changes and advances have been made in artistic 
and technical matters, as a result of the changes in the times and 
social institutions, but the vestiges of the old system and methods 
have not yet been overcome in creative work. There still remain 
remnants of capitalist and dogmatic ideas to a considerable extent, 
particularly in the system and methods of direction which 
constitutes the nucleus of film-making. Unless the old pattern is 
broken completely and a new system and methods of creation are 
established in direction, it will be impossible to accomplish the 
tasks set before the cinema, which has entered a new stage of 

Today the cinema has the task of contributing to the 
development of people to be true communists and to the 
revolutionization and working-classization of the whole of society. 
In order to carry out this historic task successfully, it is necessary, 
above all, to revolutionize direction which holds the reins of 

To revolutionize direction means to completely eradicate 
capitalist elements and the remaining dogmatism from the realm of 

directing and establish a new Juche -inspired system and methods of 

In establishing the new system and methods of directing it is 
particularly important to clarify the duty of the director and 
continually enhance his role in keeping with the intrinsic nature of 
socialist society and the character of revolutionary cinema. 

The director is the commander of the creative group. He should 
have the overall responsibility for artistic creation, production 
organization and ideological education and guide all the members 
of the creative team in film-making. 

The director in the socialist system of film-making is 
fundamentally different from the "director" in capitalist society. 

In the capitalist system of film-making the director is called 
"director" but, in fact, the right of supervision and control over film 
production is entirely in the hands of the tycoons of the 
film-making industry who have the money, whereas the directors 
are nothing but their agents. 

In capitalist society the director is shackled by the reactionary 
governmental policy of commercializing the cinema and by the 
capitalists' money, so that he is a mere worker who obeys the will 
of the film-making industrialists whether he likes it or not. On the 
other hand, in socialist society the director is an independent and 
creative artist who is responsible to the Party and the people for the 
cinema. Therefore, in the socialist system of film-making the 
director is not a mere worker who makes films but the commander, 

the chief who assumes full responsibility for everything ranging 
from the film itself to the political and ideological life of those who 
take part in film-making. The director should be the commander of 
the creative group because of the characteristic features of 
direction. In the cinema, which is a comprehensive art, directing is 
an art of guidance which coordinates the creativity of all the artists 
to make an integrated interpretation. 

Just as victory in battle depends on the leadership ability of the 
commander, so the fate of the film depends on the director's art of 
guidance. Even though he works to make a good film, the director 
cannot do so if he has no ability to guide the creative team in a 
coordinated way to realize his creative conceptions. The film is 
conceived and completed by the director, but it cannot be created 
without the collective efforts and wisdom of the creative team. 
Therefore, success in film-making depends on how the director 
works with all the artists, technicians and production and supply 
personnel in the creative group. 

If the director is to unite the creative group with one ideology 
and one purpose and make an excellent film of high ideological and 
artistic value, he must free himself once and for all from the old 
domineering and bureaucratic system and methods of direction, 
under which the direction-first policy is pursued, the boss-gang 
relationship within the creative group is established, arbitrary 
decisions are made and creative workers are dealt with through 
orders and commands. If the director resorts to bureaucracy and 

shouts down or ignores the creative team, it will break their unity 
and cohesion in ideology and purpose which constitute the basis of 
collective creation, and deprive him of his potential to create films 
and bind him hand and foot. The old system and methods of 
directing not only do not conform with the intrinsic nature of our 
socialist system where the unity and cohesion of the popular masses 
underlie social relations, but also do not conform with the 
collectivity of film-making and the intrinsic nature of direction. 

In film directing, the basic factor is also to work well with the 
artists, technicians and production and supply personnel who are 
directly involved in film-making. This is the essential requirement 
of the Juche-inspired system of directing. This system is our system 
of directing under which the director becomes the commander of 
the creative group and pushes ahead with creative work as a whole 
in a coordinated way, giving precedence to political work and 
putting the main emphasis on working with the people who make 
films. This system embodies the fundamental features of the 
socialist system and the basic principle of the Juche idea that man is 
the master of everything and decides everything. Hence, it fully 
conforms with the collective nature of film-making and the 
characteristic features of direction. 

Since the film is made through the joint efforts and wisdom of 
many people, every participant in the production should fulfil his 
role and responsibility like the master he is, and this collective 
should firmly unite with one ideology and will in order to perform 

creative assignments jointly. This fundamental requirement which 
emanates from the characteristic features of film-making can never 
be met by the old system of directing; it can be properly met only by 
the system which attaches basic importance to working with people, 
working with the creative team. 

Under the new system of direction, film-making becomes the 
work of the director himself as well as the joint work of the entire 
creative group, and both the director and creative team assume the 
responsibility for creation. Therefore, everybody buckles down to 
creation voluntarily. Also, while making films, the director helps 
and leads all the members of the collective, and the creative staff 
learn from one another in the course of their work. Such communist 
ethics in creation and the revolutionary way of life are demonstrated 
to the full. Thus everybody is closely knit in the collectivist spirit 
and rises up as one in the creative work to attain the common 

Under the new system of direction, the director is responsible 
not only for the creative work of the team but also for their political 
and ideological life. Therefore, he regularly conducts political work 
and ideological education closely combined with their creative 
activities and, accordingly, the process of creation becomes that of 
revolutionizing and working-classizing them. 

In short, the system of directing based on working with people 
not only accords with the intrinsic nature of film-making and 
direction, but also enables the director to extricate himself from 

domineering and bureaucratic tendencies and decisively improve 
his ability to guide creation; it also enables him to eradicate 
deviation towards the idea of art for art's sake, which gives 
exclusive precedence to artistic creation and to advance both 
creative work and the work of making the collective revolutionary. 

The strength of the new system lies in the fact that it guarantees the 
solid unity and cohesion of the creative group based on the Juche idea 
and gives full play to the awareness and creativity of all the members, 
and the director's guidance goes deep into the creative work and life so 
as to bring about an uninterrupted flow of innovation. 

Under the new system the director should emphasize artistic 
guidance to the creative workers. 

The basic duty of the creative group is to make revolutionary 
films of high ideological and artistic value, which make an effective 
contribution to arming people fully with the Parly's monolithic 
ideology and which imbue the whole of society with the great Juche 
idea. Whether this duty is carried out at the right time and properly 
depends on how the director works with the members of the creative team. 

The creative workers are the main figures who directly execute 
the revolutionary tasks devolving on their group. The director's 
plan is realized through these workers and all assignments of 
presentation arising in the course of creation are also carried out by 
them. Therefore, the director should work well with the creative 
workers and improve his role as their guide. Then, the creative 
group will be able to carry out the revolutionary tasks facing it 


The first thing the director must do in his work with the creative 
workers is to bring about a consensus of opinion with regard to the 
production. This is the basic guarantee for successful creation and is 
the starting point of the director's work. If each creative worker has 
his own views on the production, the director cannot lead them to 
perform the same presentation assignment and creative activities are 
thrown into confusion from the outset. 

The director must carefully analyse the general characteristics 
of the content and form of a production, so that the creative workers 
can all understand and accept it. 

In analysing and considering a production the director should 
not be too egotistical. Every artist has his own creative individuality 
and may have different views on a production. If. the director does 
not take this into account and holds to his own views and ignores the 
opinions of other creative workers, it will be difficult to establish a 
uniform view on a production. 

The interpretation of a production should be understood by 
everybody and win their consent; when it is accepted by everyone as 
their own, the work will be done effectively. 

The director must always put forward his opinions on a 
production and create an atmosphere of free discussion so that many 
constructive views can be voiced, and he must sincerely accept the 
views of the creative workers. Once agreement is reached in 
discussion, the director must quickly act on it and base the 

production on it firmly and, then, must never deviate from it, 
whatever happens. If the director falters, the whole collective will 
do so and, if this happens, the production will fail. 

When all the creative workers fully understand the production, 
the director must begin to work with each person individually. 

Artistic guidance to individual creative workers must always be 
specific. If the director only gives general guidance and indications, 
he cannot give them any substantial help or lead them confidently to 
achieve his aims. 

Taking into consideration the characteristic features and 
requirements of a production, the director should clearly tell the 
creative workers their assignments for its representation and the 
ways and means of carrying them out and consult them on problems 
which they may come across in the course of their work. Only then 
can his guidance conform with their work. 

For example, take guidance to the acting. The role and position 
of the characters to be represented by actors and actresses 
throughout the presentation and their personalities should be 
analysed and, on this basis, the direction of acting should be set and 
the tasks of presentation and methods of acting for each stage and 
situation of the drama should be specifically taught. When the 
director's guidance is precise, then his plan will agree with that of 
the creative team and their work will proceed smoothly. 
The important factor in the director's guidance of the interpretation 
is to help the creative workers to have a dear understanding of the 

seed of a given production and present it well. 

The ideological kernel of a production is the seed which the 
director and all the other creative workers should bring into flower 
through their collective efforts and wisdom. It is not only the basis 
of the interpretation by individual creative workers, but also the 
foundation on which they all combine to produce one single 
cinematic presentation. When all interpretations are conducted on 
the basis of one seed, they form the components of one cinematic 
presentation because they are built on the same foundation, 
although various forms of presentation are created by different 
artists with different personalities. Therefore, the director should be 
very careful that none of the creative team loses the seed or 
introduces anything which has nothing to do with it. 

Another aspect in which the director must make a great effort in 
his guidance to the presentation is to ensure that the creative 
interaction between artists is efficient and to lead their teamwork 

Basically, a comprehensive artistic presentation cannot be 
achieved properly by the talents or efforts of individual artists. 
When every artist establishes a close working relationship with the 
others and carries out the teamwork efficiently, the different 
elements which make up the comprehensive presentation will 
harmonize well with each other. 

The director should always be in the centre of creative 
operations and provide a close link between the activities of 

individual members of the creative team, taking care to prevent 
possible friction and departmental! st tendencies amongst them. 

The director should guide the artists correctly so that they 
exhibit a high degree of independence and initiative in the course of 
creation. Giving full play to their independence and initiative is the 
main factor which increases their sense of responsibility and rouses 
their creative ardour and imagination. Creative cooperation 
between the director and the creative workers and amongst the 
workers themselves is only successfully achieved when each plays 
his part properly in his appointed post 

The director must guide the creative workers in a very strict yet 
enlightened manner. For their part, the creative workers have to 
accept and understand each of his plans and carry them out in a 
creative manner. In this way the director should give guidance on 
the principle of making the creative workers in charge of individual 
fields of presentation assume full responsibility for their own 
creative work. This is effective artistic guidance. 

The original ideas of creative workers in film-making should be 
used to perfect the harmony of a comprehensive interpretation, 
while at the same time giving life to the personality of individual 
artistic portrayals. The director should be talented enough to 
maintain the originality of the creative workers and raise the level of 
interpretation in each Held and, on this basis, achieve the harmony 
of the whole film. This is creation in the true sense of the word. 

In his efforts to ensure that the creative workers express their 

original ideas, the director should not allow the harmony of the 
overall interpretation to be destroyed, nor should he suppress this 
originality in order to guarantee the harmony of interpretation. 

The director, the commander of the creative group, should also 
work well with the production and supply personnel. 

The director should be responsible for the production of films 
and must advance this work in a coordinated manner. 

Film-making, which is complex in content and large in scale, 
cannot move forward unless it is flawlessly supported by production 
organization. In film-making the processes of creation and 
production are inseparably linked. If production is not well 
organized, the whole process of creation and production cannot run 
smoothly. It is only when production is well organized that it is 
possible to make an excellent film in a short time and with a small 
amount of manpower, funds and materials. 

Production organization helps to ensure success in film-making. 
It moves the creative group in a unified and planned way so that all 
fields and units are well geared to each other, observing strict order 
and discipline, and it also makes rational use of materials and 
technical means and controls financial and supply activities. This is 
an important task which the director must control in a responsible 

The director should not work with production, technical and 
supply personnel in an administrative and technical manner just 
because production organization is administrative and technical in 

content. Administrative and technical guidance runs counter to the 
intrinsic nature of the Juche-inspired system of directing, and 
prevents production, technical and supply personnel from being 
actively drawn into film-making. In his guidance of production 
organization the director should work with people sincerely. 

One of the maj or criteria for the new type of director is that he is 
the ideological educator of the creative group. The director should 
be responsible for their politico-ideological life and keep 
intensifying their politico-ideological education, so as to lead them 
to perform their mission conscientiously as revolutionary artists. 

The unity of ideology and purpose of the creative team is a 
major factor for ensuring the successful completion of a film. Even 
if the director has the talent and skill to fuse together the diverse 
elements of interpretation organically, a harmonious film cannot be 
made with this alone. No production of high ideological and artistic 
value can evolve out of a creative group whose members are not 
united ideologically and in which discipline and order have not been 

The unity of ideology and purpose of the creative team is not 
only a basic requirement for maintaining consistency throughout a 
film but it also has an important bearing on waging the speed 
campaign, establishing a revolutionary spirit of creation and 
hastening the revolutionization and working-dassization of all the 

Education in the Parly's monolithic ideology is basic to the 

ideological education of the creative team. This work should always 
precede creative work and should be conducted forcefully 
throughout the creative battle. 

Ideological education by the director is aimed at equipping the 
creative team fully with the Parly's lines and policies so as to make 
better revolutionary films more rapidly. So, when ideological 
education is combined with creative work, great vitality can be 
demonstrated and artists can be roused to the creative battle. 

The director must keep a grip on ideological education 
throughout the whole course of creative work, and give absolute 
priority to political work at each stage of the creative process. The 
new system of directing proves effective only when the director 
gives absolute priority to political work in everything that is done. 
The system is meaningless if the director neglects political work 
and remains as bureaucratic as ever. 

To give priority to political work and keep raising the political 
awareness of the creative staff so that they willingly participate in 
film-making is an application in film-making of the fundamental 
requirements of our Party's traditional revolutionary work method. 
The director should fully adhere to this revolutionary method of 
creation. Whatever he produces, the director must thoroughly 
explain its ideological content and artistic features to all the creative 
staff and tell them in full about the purpose and significance of the 
production, so as to encourage them to take part in creative work 
with great revolutionary zeal. 

The director should take control of working with the creative 
team and energetically conduct political work prior to all other 
work. It is only then that he can satisfactorily perform his role as 
artistic leader, production organizer and ideological educator and 
become a distinguished commander of the creative group. 


The director must have confidence in himself and aim high and 
work boldly. 

The director's self-confidence is his own strong creative 
opinions based on his profound understanding and independent 
interpretation of life and the arts. His self-confidence emanates 
from the high political awareness that he is responsible for 
film-making and from a strong conviction that he is serving the 

revolution through his artistic activities. 

The director can succeed in his creative work when he tackles 
his task with strong personal opinions and boldness. If the director, 
the commander of the creative group, has no strong opinions of his 
own, the group loses confidence in the production and cannot work 
well. A director who has strong opinions of his own, has a lively 
imagination and works boldly, will be successful. But a director 
who is overcautious will never produce anything worth mentioning. 

That the director should aim high in his creative work means 
that he should set a high objective which would solve new and 
important problems in re-educating people and developing society 
in a unique way. 

The director must take the great Juche idea as his basis and have 
his own understanding and opinions about life and the arts. Then he 
can always set himself new, higher tasks of presentation in creation 
and achieve them well. 

Self-confidence is based on knowledge. If anyone is ignorant, 
insisting only on his own point of view, he is merely being stubborn. 
The director gains confidence when he is fully armed with the Juche 
idea and knows a great deal about life and the arts. 

If the director sets a high objective in creation and wants to 
attain it, he must put forward a new, unique idea as early as the stage 
of directorial conception. 

Directorial conception is the blueprint of a film which is to be 
made; it is the director's creative plan to guide his whole team in a 

unified way to create a consistent interpretation. Just as a military 
commander who has charge of an army must have a clear-cut 
operational plan, so the director, the commander of the film-making 
group, must have a detailed operational plan. The fate of a film 
depends largely on how this plan is worked out. 

The directorial conception should be original and individual. As a 
new plan enables a new house to be built, so a new directorial 
conception enables the creation of a special film. No original work for 
the cinema can be expected from a director who has no opinions of his 
own and copies the ideas of others and conceives every production in a 
stereotyped manner. True creation lies in the ability to find new 
subjects and explore fresh spheres of presentation in a unique way. 

The director must introduce new subjects in his own way. 

Every artistic presentation is achieved through the creative 
individuality of the artist. In literature and the arts there is no life 
which is not depicted through the artist's creative individuality. 
When making a film the director must follow the script 
scrupulously, but he must not do so blindly, word for word, or copy 
it. A director who has no ideas of his own, other than those set out in 
the script, cannot create anything of his own. Such a director cannot 
even copy the literary presentation properly. 

If the presentation set out in the script is to be improved and 
modified in keeping with the characteristics of the film, the director 
must have high creative ardour and burning enthusiasm. When the 
director sets out on the road of inquiry with such spirit and zeal, he 

will assuredly find a new image. . The director can only create 
something new, something of his own, when he consistently 
maintains a high creative spirit, beginning from the interpretation of 
life and literature to the creation of a portrayal. 

A bold new idea in creation only ripens fully when brought to 
life. A director, however talented, cannot imagine a new and 
audacious cinematic presentation if he does not know the Party's 
policies well and lacks rich experience of life. 

The director can produce nothing new if he sits in his study, 
mechanically trying to produce a script from the literary work 
created by a writer who has gone into actual situations and lived 
amongst the people. If the director does not make a serious study of 
actual conditions based on literary presentation and just wastes his 
time in his study, hoping that the writer will present everything 
cinematically and perfectly, he will have many problems in his 
work later. 

The director has to begin his creative work by experiencing life 
and understanding it well. He should experience and store in his 
mind all meaningful happenings from trifling details to stirring 
historic events. When he has accumulated an experience of life and 
seethes with passion to such an extent that he cannot remain still 
without describing it, creative work will flow smoothly and become 
a pleasant and worthy task. 

Suppose a writer has mixed with the heroic workers of a steel 
plant and, on the basis of their creative labour efforts and worthy 

life, has written a work, then the director should also experience 
their life. 

Needless to say, the director cannot exactly follow the same 
creative course taken by the writer. He must form his own opinions 
and build up his own experiences and, in the course of this, take 
note of one vivid image after another of human beings who are 
building a new life. Only then will the director have a good 
understanding of the men and the life described in the script and 
find accurate and suitable ways of representing them and establish 
an independent and creative opinion of his own. 

Correct analysis and understanding of the seed of a production is 
one of the basic requirements of literary activity which establishes a 
fresh, unique directorial plan. 

In the creative process the seed not only constitutes a driving 
force which propels the director's creative work forward, but also a 
practical foundation which determines the scope and orientation of 

How to work out the plan and write the script, how to deal with 
the portrayal on screen, how to conduct creative work with 
individual artists — all these problems have to be solved by the 
director in terms of this seed. He cannot conceive any plan or 
creation without considering the seed. Only when he has a deep 
understanding of the seed of a production and is sure of it, can he 
draw up a bold plan and embark on full-scale interpretation. 

It is not easy to attain a correct understanding of the seed of a 

production and define its ideological and artistic value and 
significance accurately. A director, however talented and 
well -versed in literature, cannot understand the content of a piece of 
work completely by reading it only a few times, and can scarcely 
develop individual interpretations. He has to study the writer's 
works systematically and attentively and gain a precise 
understanding of his creative individuality. Then, he can correctly 
understand the interpretations in the work. He must study the way of 
life depicted in the script and closely observe the interpretations. 
Then, he can clearly understand the writer's intention and opinion. 

Able directors, when analysing a work, do not draw hasty 
conclusions, impressed by a few points and feeling an urge to 
improvize. Even if individual scenes are quite impressive, able 
directors tend to be worried when the whole work looks vague and 
not very convincing. They are not delighted by the appeal and 
impression of individual scenes, but by the fact that the seed the 
writers have planted with such devotion is distinct and gives a great 
impetus to creation. When they nurture an excellent seed, they boil 
with passion, so they have to be active. 

The director must treasure the seed of a production as his own 
artistic discovery and be warmly in favour of it and, further, 
concentrate everything on growing it in a unique way and bring it to 
full flower. 

The seed of the work is not abstract; it lives in the hero and other 
characters and in their lives. The unity of the elements of 

representation based on the seed is also always achieved through the 
portrayal of the characters around the hero. Therefore, the director 
should correctly understand the individual features of the characters 
represented in written works and clearly define the tasks to be 
solved by them in their actions. In particular, he must keep the hero 
firmly in the centre of the drama and order the actions of all the rest 
of the characters closely around the hero's line of action. 

A person's character is created in certain situations. Visualizing 
the living characters, the director should accurately discern whether 
events and facts underlying the circumstances and situations have 
an archetypal significance or not, and must pick out the right details. 
Events and details which, however interesting, are not 
representative and obstruct the bringing to life of the characters, 
must be cast aside boldly. 

At the stage of directorial conception it is also necessary to 
establish the genre and appearance of the film correctly. If the 
director fails to perceive them in the seed, he cannot find the correct 
genre conforming to the content nor accurately determine the 
suitable emotional colour of the production. 

When the characters emerge and the circumstances of their lives 
are depicted in his conception, the director should then visualize 
their relation to events and clearly see the whole composition of the 
film, as conflicts are established and the plot develops. At the stage 
of conception, when the content of the production is built up and the 
line of depiction fixed, the genre and appearance of the film must be 

established in greater detail. 

When the composition of the film is fixed and the means and 
techniques of interpretation are clearly chosen on the basis of the 
seed, the director should see the scenes and the whole flow of the 
film in his mind. The film can only be fresh and characteristic when 
the director's plan contains a new human problem and new people 
and new life. 

The director's plan can only develop and mature in a lively, 
creative imagination. When he has imagination, he can aim high 
and attain his goal. 

The director who creates new artistic interpretations should have 
a diverse, rich and bold imagination. Based on literary 
representation, the director must have an imagination with which to 
adapt it to the cinema and also a creative imagination with which to 
produce something new on the basis of real life. The imagination for 
adaptation is very important in filming literary works, but if one just 
relies on this alone, it is impossible to modify the script to give it 
rich expression. If the director develops his creative imagination 
and finds aspects of life which the writer has failed to depict, the 
representation will become richer. 

Creative imagination must always be based on real life. The 
director cannot depict life truthfully if he produces something 
absurd which is divorced from life or if he is engrossed in inventing 
spectacular scenes which are of no importance. 

There was once a debate on the problem of fuming the story of a 

general of ancient times who had repulsed foreign invaders. A 
director said that he would give a wonderful representation of that 
heroic resistance if he was just given 500 horses. Some people 
claimed that the director's imagination was rich and bold and they 
even envied him. Is this really rich and bold artistic imagination? 
What would happen if one started making films, excited by the idea 
of visualizing a spectacular panorama in which 500 horses charge 
like a hurricane over a wide expanse of fields and thunderous cheers 
are heard over a forest of glittering spears? 

A director who does not see the essential content of life but 
considers only the genre and scale of the work to be important 
cannot achieve success in film-making. Before imagining the 500 
horses, the director should have pictured the gallant people who 
rose up against foreign aggressors and should nave planned to 
depict their heroic struggle vividly. 

No improvisation should be made hastily in the process of 
creation. Improvisation leads to error. In creation it is impossible to 
ignore a strong emotional impact which touches one's heart 
momentarily and the image which emerges from it, but it is 
necessary to think the matter over and over again before including it 
as a link in the whole chain of the conception. Improvisation is a 
taboo particularly for the director who commands the creative 
group. If he becomes the captive of emotional impulses and starts 
making random corrections on matters of creation already agreed 
upon by the group, creative activities will be thrown into 

irretrievable confusion and the presentation will be marred. 

The presentation which has matured at the stage of conception 
should be specifically determined in the director's script. 

The director must not hastily try to write the script as soon as his 
conception has begun to mature. It is necessary for him to review 
carefully the conception which he has formed with his heart and 
soul. He must carefully examine whether the seed has been 
unerringly planted, whether character portrayals are distinct, 
whether life is reflected truthfully, whether the story is woven in a 
cinematic manner and whether the flow of scenes is interesting and 
smooth. In brief, it is necessary to check thoroughly whether or not 
the presentation achieved at the stage of conception has been clearly 

The director can only transcribe the conception into his script 
when it is both logically and emotionally perceived. The director's 
script is the blueprint of the film, in which the cinematic portrayal 
formed at the stage of conception is transformed into words. It is the 
director's initial creation. 

It is better to prepare this script by pooling the efforts and 
wisdom of many creative workers such as cameramen, art 
designers, composers and assistant directors, than by the director 
himself doing so. However distinguished a director is, he cannot 
match the efforts and wisdom of the collective. Since this script is to 
be filmed by the teamwork of all the creative workers, it is 
advantageous in many respects to pool their efforts and wisdom 

from the beginning. Only when the film pictured in the director's 
script is alive and moves as one and the same image in the minds of 
all creative workers, can the intentions of the director be reflected 
accurately on the screen. 

The director must be self-confident and carry out the creative 
work boldly and substantially, ranging from the study of life and the 
work to conception, from conception to the script, and from the 
script to shooting. Only then can he be assured of reaching a high 
creative goal. 


Seeing a production once is different from seeing it twice. One 
wants to see some productions again, but not others. A certain 
production awakens fresh interest each time one sees it and excites 
greater passion and warmth. This sort of production can be called 
sincere art. 

If a production is to move the audience through impressive 

interpretation the dramatic content must be well organized. 
Outlining the emotional content is basic to dramatic organization. 

In the past, emphasis was placed only on the plot as its 
organization was regarded as basic to dramatic organization. 
Therefore, there were many formalistic tendencies to subordinate 
true life to creating drama for its own sake, catering for the 
lowbrows by using incidents, instead of giving a discerning 
depiction of human ideas and feelings. 

The organization of the plot is always aimed at laying the 
foundation of life which links the relationships of the characters and 
conditions their behaviour. Their line of action should be fixed on 
the basis of this organization and the sequence of feelings 
manifested through their actions should be revealed so as to express 
the ideas that lie behind their emotions. An impressive 
interpretation can only be given in this way. 

The definition of emotions is a method of delivery which 
expresses through emotions the essence of character, by uncovering 
the emotional world of man naturally through a logical sequence of 
tension and release, buildup and climax. 

Effectively outlining the emotional content in the arts is the 
main depictive task arising from the intrinsic human nature. Like 
ideas, the emotions are a part of man's innermost thoughts. 
Therefore, without emotions, it is impossible to express the 
innermost thoughts and describe human nature accurately. The 
unity of ideas and emotions is an essential feature of artistic 

representation. In the arts an idea divorced from emotions can only 
produce a sterile concept and be abstract. Only an idea which has 
been revealed through a succession of emotions can touch people's 
heartstrings and make a deep impression on them. 

When the emotions are well defined, everybody appearing on 
the screen comes alive and gives the impression of being a real 
person. When they see people who are true-to-life on the screen, the 
audience forget that they are watching a film and are drawn into the 
story which is being presented and they adopt the same ideas and 
emotions as the characters and assimilate the idea set out in the 
production as their own. Just as only an idea which has gained their 
approval through experience is implanted deep in their mind, so 
only an idea which has been taken in through vivid scenes, can 
create a deep impress on and be engraved strongly on their mind. 
That is why they say that the better the emotions are organized, the 
more deeply the audience will reflect on them. 

Good emotional definition is one of the basic conditions for 
enhancing the descriptive quality of a production. According to the 
way the emotions are organized, the same Him can make a variety 
of impressions and have a different descriptive quality. 

The definition of the emotions in an artistic work should 
correspond to the personalities of the characters and to logic. 

The main element which rouses people's emotions is life itself. 
Human emotions emerge from life, find expression in life and affect 
life. Various feelings such as joy and sorrow which every man 

experiences, are caused by the relationship between him and his 
situation. Human emotions cannot exist outside reality. 
Accordingly, the definition of the emotions in drama can only be 
accurate and clear when it accords with logic. 

Emotions are based on reality, but they only mature as the man 
reacts to it. Not everything in life rouses the emotions amply 
because reality is the basis of emotion and emotion is a particular 
way of reflecting life. At the same time, the same object inspires 
diverse emotions in different people and each man is moved to a 
different extent. Therefore, emotions can only be genuine when 
they are organized in accordance with logic, both in the human 
character and in life itself. 

If the definition of emotions is to accord with the logic of human 
character and life, it is necessary, first of all, to explore people's 
inmost thoughts completely and understand correctly what rouses 
and colours their emotions. 

When the director embarks on descriptive work based on a 
superficial study of the characters who appear in literature, specific, 
diverse and delicate human feelings tend to be ignored. 

The causes and shades of emotions differ according to the 
personality of the characters and the situations they are in. 
Moreover, their diverse emotions are not shown only in the change 
and development of life; they are also intertwined in various ways 
even in a single situation; therefore, unless the emotional state of the 
characters is fully explored, it is impossible to have an accurate 

understanding of the path and shades of the emotions. 

In the film "The Flower Girl" Ggot Bun is overjoyed to meet her 
brother when she is on the point of dying, the brother whom she has 
only ever dreamt of seeing again. However, her heart is torn at the 
thought of her mother, who has died without seeing the brother 
again. Ggot Bun's joy is mixed with grief; her emotions show a 
mental state that words cannot describe as she is gripped by a 
feeling of reproach for her brother who has returned belatedly and 
an overwhelming longing for her dead mother. In addition, Ggot 
Bun's emotions at the time are blended with her hatred for the cruel 
world which treats her so harshly that she sheds bitter tears. 

According to the specific situation the character is in, and 
according to his experience, diverse shades of feeling are 
interwoven and one shade replaces another in just a single 
moment. In life, it is not uncommon for joy to change to sorrow 
and sorrow to hatred in a moment. 

In this way, according to the specific situations in which a man 
finds himself, and his experience, various emotional shades 
emerge and mix, one replacing another. As time passes, emotions 
may change; the rousing is replaced by the sentimental and the 
joyful by the sad. This means that emotions can only be defined 
well when the director is able to recognize the various emotional 
changes brought about by changes in life and in the characters and 
when he can discern the shades precisely. 
The director must be sensitive enough to understand any 

emotional change, distinguish the delicate shades correctly and 
must explore every emotion in depth. Therefore, he has to have the 
sensitivity to feel the delicate and varied emotional shades as well as 
the ability to explore every single emotion in full, overlooking 

To build up emotions in keeping with the characters and the 
logic of life and, on this basis, bring them to a climax is one 
important means of defining emotions in a realistic way. 

Emotions must be built up and there has to be a motive for 
bringing them to a head. In the final analysis, improvisation takes 
place on the basis of a specific experience. In drama, a natural effect 
can be achieved when the emotions of the characters are brought to 
a head by a certain motive after being built up. Emotions which 
come to a head without any buildup or motive are either unnatural 
or false. 

The characters' emotions should build up as the drama develops 
and the motive has to be supplied at the right moment for the 
emotions to be expressed. If their buildup is excessively prolonged, 
the emotional current weakens and the film becomes boring. 

Tension in the development of emotions is always associated 
with a crucial moment which determines the character's actions. 
The decisive moment for action should be seized correctly and the 
feelings must continually be built up to that point and brought to a 
head at the right moment. It is only then that strong dramatic tension 
and emotional excitement will be generated. If the emotions which 

have been building up do not come to a head at the right moment, 
they will make no impression on the audience because they will lack 

If the scene is changed hastily after the climax of emotions, 
merely to allow the introduction of the next scene, emotion will be 
dissipated and the flow of the film will become dull. In -drama, the 
emotional climax must linger in the imagination. This effectively 
prolongs the emotional excitement of the audience and gives them a 
sense of peace. Unlike actions, the emotions have a lasting effect. 
An emotional pause is introduced following a specific incident in a 
film so as to create a stronger and more lasting impact amongst the 

This lasting emotional impact makes the audience think deeply 
and keeps the image of the film fresh in their minds for a long time. 
The director should create the ambience skilfully by various means 
of depiction and lead it on to the next emotion and should make the 
audience look forward to the next scene. 

Providing a prerequisite based on true life is a necessary 
condition for preparing the escalation of emotions. When there is 
this prerequisite, an emotion emerges from it naturally. A mere 
logical connection of incidents does not bring about the buildup of 
emotions. When the emotional flow formed through change and 
development in life is consistently maintained, an emotion can 
develop and the accumulated emotion can move gradually towards 
the climax. 

The moment of emotional climax should not be fixed merely for 
the sake of tension and amusement, with the main emphasis being 
placed on events. This moment must be determined so that the 
dramatic sequence can be given weight and ideological depth can be 

The definition of emotions is not aimed merely at making the 
audience tense or amusing them, but at intensifying the ideological 
and emotional influence of a production. The definition of emotions 
has no meaning if it does not impress the audience profoundly. 
Emotional definition in a film has to ' be subject to expressing the 
idea of the production in an emotional and meaningful way. 

In the arts it is necessary to clarify the process of the emergence 
of a new emotion, closely combining this with the process through 
which a revolutionary view of the world is created and developed. 
While establishing his revolutionary view of the world, man not 
only forms a correct impression of life and a will to struggle but also 
enriches and enlarges his emotional experience. 

The director should show concisely and impressively yet 
extensively how a man's revolutionary awareness and emotions 
form and develop and how they relate to each other. 

The film "Sea of Blood" shows clearly how the mother's 
ideological awareness and emotional state change radically in step 
with the way life changes and develops. A number of emotions are 
interwoven until the mother, deprived of her husband, arrives at the 
village of Pyoljae with her children. But her strongest emotions are 

grief over the death of her husband and anxiety about the future of 
her fatherless children. But, when she meets an old man in the 
village, and is told about the General's Star over Mt. Paekdu, a 
change takes place in her ideological awareness, which brings about 
an alteration in her emotional state. The mother, who has been 
wrapped in grief, begins to pin her hopes on the advent of a new 
world, and after she has become friendly with an underground 
guerrilla, she is filled with revolutionary ideology and enters an 
entirely new emotional state. 

As ideological awareness changes and develops, the 
fluctuations of the emotions should be depicted accurately. This 
makes it possible to achieve an emotional sequence in keeping with 
the characters and the logic of life and to express emotionally and 
impressively the process by which people's revolutionary world 
outlook is created. 

In cinema direction, while maintaining diverse shades of 
emotion which engender different feelings in different persons 
-according to the content of their lives, secondary emotional themes 
must always be subordinated to the main theme. Needless to say, 
this main theme is the hero's emotional theme which plays a 
dominant role in expounding the theme and idea of the work. 

Even in the life of a single person there are many different 
emotional shades. Emotional entanglement is even greater between 
different people, each with a different personality. The more 
complicated the scene, the more closely the main emotional theme 

should be followed, and attention should be given to unequivocally 
depicting the process of its development. Then, unity of emotions, 
the harmony of interpretation can be satisfactorily achieved. 

One cannot and must not explore the emotional themes of all the 
characters to the same extent on the grounds that their emotional 
world should be described in depth. If one does so, it is impossible 
to maintain anyone's emotional theme adequately and the 
relationship between the main and secondary themes becomes 
vague, so that the theme of the story cannot be kept alive and the 
sequence of emotions will not be harmonious. 

The audience can follow the main theme of the drama in any 
scene with a sense of peace when attention is focussed on the main 
character's emotional theme and emphasis is placed on arousing the 
main emotion, into which the emotional themes of the other 
characters are channelled naturally. 

If the emotions are to be defined in depth, it is necessary to 
control them by following the character's destiny. 
People undergo the most serious experience when problems of their 
destiny become important, or their destiny is decided and, as a 
consequence, their emotional state becomes extremely sensitive. In 
revolutionary films, in particular, the destiny of the heroes is related 
to the future of the revolution, the country and the people, so that 
their experience and the emotions which it arouses are all the more 
critical and sensitive. The significance of an incident and of its 
drama is highlighted when it is linked with the destiny of the 

characters. The development of the plot constitutes the realistic 
basis of dramatic organization, and the foundation of outlining the 
emotional content, but it only becomes true and significant when it 
is absolutely subordinated to elaborating the character's destiny. 

It is necessary, therefore, to explore the incidents which alter the 
destiny of the characters, while revealing their emotional state at 
every moment in minute detail. This makes it possible to intensify 
the flow of emotions. 

Emotions in a film should be defined so that they capture the 
hearts of the audience from the very first scene. 

If the first scene is awkward, the development of the drama in 
the film will start without captivating the audience, and the 
emotions will develop loosely throughout the whole of the drama. 
The dramatic relations of the characters are not fully shown in the 
first scene nor is the story of their lives fully developed. Therefore, 
the main problem can be suggested only when emotions are defined, 
with the emphasis on making dear where the interest of the 
characters lies. 

The dramatic entanglement formed at the beginning of the story 
inevitably causes a conflict in the main scenes, and through this 
conflict, the ideas and emotions of the characters are defined more 
clearly. Therefore, in the main scenes of dramatic development, 
emotions should be defined on the basis of the relationship between 
the two conflicting forces. Here, the struggle between the two forces 
which try to realize their respective aspirations determines the 

tension and release of the drama, and its climax and appeal, as well 
as the audience's interest and expectations. 

It is important to define the emotions skilfully in the main 
scenes, particularly at the climax when all the characters reveal their 
true nature and act decisively with great determination and mental 
concentration. The climax finally reveals what the objectives and 
aspirations of the two forces have been, where life should go and 
how it is developing. Therefore, it becomes the most important 
scene both in the light of its ideological significance and the 
intensity of dramatic tension. During the climax emotions should be 
defined in such a way as to explain fully the main idea of the drama, 
dealing only with the main conflict and main incident and how they 
affect the main characters. 

In the final scene the conflict is resolved, the idea of the 
production is completely explained and a dear answer is given to the 
main problem which has been raised. So, the screen should be filled 
with the emotions of the hero in his triumph. Only then is it possible 
to depict the idea of the production more succinctly, as a single 
emotion, the emotion which confirms the victory of the good, 

In defining the emotions the director must bring the emotional 
world to life by focussing on the emotional themes of the characters 
and making full use of every element and means of interpretation. 

People are deeply moved only when the emotional development 
of the film proceeds smoothly, whileat the same time combining 

everything harmoniously in terms of the characters' emotional 


In any work it is necessary to identify correctly the main knot in 
the whole string and undo it first by a concentrated effort, which 
will make it easier to unravel the other knots and push ahead with 
the whole work successfully. This is also true of the creative work 
of the film director. 

Having completed his literary discussion with the writer, the 

director has many things to do with the cameramen, art designers, 
composers, actors and all the other members of the creative team. 
However, the director cannot do all this work simultaneously, still 
less can he do it without taking priority into account. He must take 
the main knot and concentrate his efforts on undoing it in order to 
step up his creative work as a whole. This is the only way to 

Working with the actors is the main link in the director's 
creative activities. 

The actor is the real creator of a human character. He stands at 
the centre of the cinematic interpretation. The director can only 
show human character as set out in the script, as a live character on 
the screen, through the actor. It is the actor who creates a true 
portrayal of a character which moves the audience. 

The director attaches the greatest importance to the actor's 
efforts and, at the same time, directs the creative work of all the 
artists towards a single task of portrayal. Taking control of the 
actor's creative work is the only way in which the director can 
promote the whole work of creation and raise cinematic 
representation to a high level. That is why experienced directors 
always give priority to choosing the actors and guiding their acting 
and concentrate on this. 

Choosing those who are suited to the personality of the 
characters is the starting point in working with actors. Even if the 
character depicted in the script is distinct and the actor has acting 

ability and the director gives him meticulous guidance, a successful 
portrayal can hardly be expected if it is not possible to choose an 
actor who is suited to the character. 

It is true that actors should be prepared to portray any character 
at any time, but since every one of them has different creative 
individuality, he may be well-suited to one character but not to 
another. The more similar the actor is to the character he is playing, 
the faster and more easily their unity is achieved. If this is not the 
case, no amount of effort and enthusiasm will suffice in order to 
play the part successfully. 

And yet, there is no necessity to try hard to find a "suitable 
actor." The actor who fits a part 1 00 per cent is one in a hundred or a 
thousand or even more. In the final analysis, a director who searches 
for a "suitable actor" is taking a chance in creative work. No 
director who relies on luck in creative work has ever achieved 

Choosing an actor suited to a part means finding one who has 
ideological and artistic qualities and the physical characteristics to 
play the part. Therefore, the director must not create a character to 
suit the actor, but choose the actor who fits the part. 

When portraying a character, the actor always starts from within 
himself, but the selection of the actor should always be based on the 
character. This is a realistic way to give life to the personality of the 
character and enhance the ideological and artistic quality of a 

When choosing an actor, the director must have a deep 
understanding of every side of the personality of the character and 
then examine the actors against its personality and not against its 
external appearance. An actor may resemble the character he is to 
play, but if he is spiritually and morally inferior to the character, 
then he cannot play the role. An actor may not look exactly right for 
the part, but if he has the ideological and artistic ability to show the 
character's spiritual and moral qualities, there is no need to worry 
too much. Makeup can help to alter the appearance of the actor to 
look like the character. 

In order to choose a suitable actor, it is necessary to study and 
understand the personality of the actor comprehensively and deeply, 
while at the same time correctly understanding his political and 
ideological life and artistic qualities. As his political and ideological 
preparedness and artistic qualities are reflected in his creative 
activities and daily life, the director should study all the actor's 
creative activities and also examine the social, political, cultural and 
moral aspects of his life closely and regularly. 

In understanding an actor, the director must not be captivated by 
a couple of skills he possesses and overlook more important aspects. 
The actor must be ideologically well prepared before acquiring 
skills. Therefore, he should know the actor's artistic qualities well 
on the basis of a deep understanding of his ideological 
preparedness. Through his overall study of the actor's creative 
activities and the social, political, cultural and moral aspects of his 

life, the director can understand his ideological preparedness, his 
views on life and the arts, his creative individuality, his merits and 
faults in acting and comprehend all his qualities. 

When the director has learnt everything about an actor from 
every angle through his daily life and creative activities, he can 
picture the face of the right actor while he is studying the 
personality of a character in the script, and he can decide how to 
work creatively with him. 

When selecting an actor, the director should not merely consider 
a few well-known actors, but should consider many others; he must 
pay particular attention to new actors. Only then can he make a 
better choice of suitable actors, create fresh and diverse portrayals 
and also gain more experience in his guidance of acting. 

The director must be particularly careful not to use actors who 
have been trained by others but should boldly have faith in new 
actors and train them himself. One of the basic tasks of the director 
is that of finding and training a large number of new actors. 

Choosing suitable actors is only the beginning of the director's 
work with actors. Even when he has chosen a good actor, he cannot 
avoid failure if that actor cannot represent the personality of the 
character truthfully. The director should choose good actors, but he 
must work harder to guide them in their creative work. 

The portrayal of a person on the screen begins and ends with the 
actor, but acting depends largely upon the director. However 
talented and experienced he is, an actor can scarcely achieve 

success if the director does not give him proper guidance in his 
acting. On the other hand, even new actors , achieve good results if 
they are given meticulous guidance. 

It is the director alone who guides the actors and judges whether 
they are portraying the parts they are to play properly. Just as a man 
looks into the mirror when making himself presentable, so the actor 
can correctly judge how he is acting and can improve his skill with 
the help of the director. The actor creates his portrayal of a person 
independently but without the director, he cannot complete the task. 
In the theatre the player's acting is always reflected by the 
immediate response of the audience, but in films, the player's acting 
is only perfected through the efforts of the director. Therefore, the 
director has to give the actor responsible and meticulous guidance 
from shooting and throughout the following stages, until his best 
performance has been captured on film. 

The director must, above all, give the actor the stimulus he needs 
to create the character. The actor needs a practical drive which will 
push and lead him forward in creation. The road which he must 
travel with the character he is to portray is not a smooth one. The 
action in one scene is a link in the character's long course of life, 
and it reflects his present as well as his past life and gives an insight 
into his future life. If the actor is to identify with the character and 
attain his creative goal, he must have powerful motivation in his 

If an actor wants powerful motivation to play his part, he must 

fully understand the seed of the production and explore the life of 
the character in depth. Whatever role the actor is going to play, the 
goal of his acting and the specific task of the action only become 
clear and convincing when the seed of the production and the life of 
the character are completely understood. 

Since the seed which exists in the characters' lives is revealed 
through their activities, the director must teach the actors both the 
seed of the production and the personality of the characters, and 
must make them understand fully what parts their characters play in 
revealing the seed. He must not try to convince the actors of the seed 
of the production only theoretically just because the seed is the 
ideological kernel of life. As the director himself has been 
convinced of this through his own experience and responded to it 
ideologically, so actors must be made to understand the seed and 
accept it in their hearts as a seed of real life. 

The director must make the actors understand and accept the 
content of the production before ensuring that they are perfectly in 
harmony with the characters, so that they can give a convincing 

If the actor does not completely accept the ideas and emotions of 
the character as his own, he may possibly imitate the words and 
actions, but he cannot create a real person who is true to life. This 
living person can only be created when the actor is completely as 
one with the character, that is. only when he lives and behaves as the 
character would do. 

The main way of integrating the actor and the character in the 
performance is for the actor to have a deep and extensive 
understanding of the latter as well as real experience of his life and. 
on this basis, speak and act and live like the person he is to portray. 

The director must guide all the actors to enter into the world of 
the production and obtain a precise understanding of the personality 
of the characters, and should ensure that they respond warmly to the 
characters' ideas and emotions and accept them as their own and 
that they bring life to their personalities in a unique way through 
their own individuality. In addition, the director must ensure that the 
actors believe in the characters' lives as their own and move 
naturally as the characters would do. 

Response to and belief in the characters' lives emerge only 
when actors enter the state of feeling as the characters would. 
Therefore, the director should know how to lead actors into this 
state naturally through experience. He must not, under any 
circumstances, force them into feeling as the characters would. 
While skilfully persuading the actors to enter the world of the 
characters of their own accord, the director has to make them 
believe in the situation and the atmosphere. Then, the actors can 
make themselves part of the action taking place on the screen and 
speak and act like the people they are playing. 

In order to fuse the actor and the character into an integrated 
portrayal, it is important to maintain the consistency of the player's 
acting throughout the film. He may act very well in certain scenes, 

but if his acting is not consistent, then the person he is creating 
would eventually fail to live as a character moving according to his 
own ideas and convictions and become a capricious personality. 

Unlike the stage actor who takes part in each scene in sequence 
according to the plot, the film actor has to act in bits and pieces, out 
of sequence because of the complexities of film-making. Under 
these circumstances, it is not easy for the film actor to ensure 
consistency and uniformity in his acting. This is only possible in the 
cinema when acting is effectively guided in each scene by the 
director, who plans the general orientation of character portrayal, 
the goal of the acting in each scene and the actors' assignments as a 

Acting must be guided in an enlightened manner. This is a 
method of guidance for acting, to maintain the development of the 
independence and creativity of the actor so as to enable him to 
portray characters by himself. It is based on the idea that the master 
of character portrayal is the actor himself and no one else. 

This method is only effective when exacting demands are made 
on the actor and he is patiently helped to identify the heart of the 

The director must not meddle in matters which the actor should 
do himself or try to teach him more than necessary, just because the 
actor has to be taught and helped to make progress. If the director 
tries to teach the actor everything, it will bind him hand and foot 
and, consequently, suppress the independence and creativity of the 

actor as a creative artist . 

This method does not allow the director to interfere un- 
necessarily in the course of guidance of acting or to leave 
everything to the actor, without making strong demands on him. 

Fundamentally, directing means guiding the actors' per- 
formance. If the director is going to do this properly, he should set 
them high objectives and lead them to solve problems of portrayal 

The important thing in teaching the actor is that the director 
leads him to have a high degree of political awareness as an artistic 
creator. The director has to guide the actor in such a way that he 
will increase his sense of responsibility and initiative throughout 
the creative activity, deeply conscious of the mission assigned him 
by the Party and the revolution. 

In the guidance of acting, the enlightened method can achieve 
better results when it is done expressively on the basis of specific 
instances from real life. 

The actor's creative work to understand and represent the 
personality of the character is a process of exploring his life and 
giving expression to the features of his personality. Therefore, the 
director cannot inspire the actor's ideas and emotions solely by 
logical interpretation, and cannot guide him to represent the 
character in a natural way. In the guidance of acting, the director 
should always explain life expressively. Then, the actor can 
promptly picture the life of tile character and depict it on the screen 

as it is and play his role in this life accurately. 

A good film can be produced by a director who works well with 
the actors, beginning from their selection to his guidance of them in 


The visual representation must be good. The cinema is a visual 
art, and when the images are attractive to look at, people can be 
drawn into the cinematic world immediately and they can remember 

the idea of the production for a long time afterwards, with the vivid 
images created on the screen. 

If the visual interpretation in a film is not good, the production 
cannot come alive, however well the actors perform and however 
fine the songs and music may be. The actor's portrayal only appears 
on the screen, and so do the interpretations of the other artists. 
Therefore, everything will be successful when the screen 
presentation is well organized. 

Anything captured on film cannot be corrected afterwards. In 
the theatre, the presentation can be polished all the time, even in the 
course of the actual performance. In the cinema, however, it is 
impossible to erase or correct anything which has already been 
filmed. If the shooting has to be repeated because of poor visual 
representation, this causes a waste of film, manpower and time, and 
confusion in the complicated process of film-making. 

When making a film, the director must, from the outset, pay 
particular attention to creating an excellent visual representation 
and make an accurate plan, before he works in detail with the 
cameraman and art designer. 

In a film, the presentation on the screen is achieved specifically 
by the cameraman and art designer. 

The quality of the picture depends first and foremost on how the 
director works with the art designer. Defects in art design cannot be 
rectified during shooting. The work with the art designer is the first 
step to transform the director's conception into cinematic 

representation. The screen interpretation the director has conceived 
and written out is first given visual expression in his work with the 
art designer. 

Prior to his work with the art designer, the director must check to 
see whether he can adequately meet the requirements of the script 
and what needs to be added to the written interpretation. When the 
creative individuality of the art designer has been explored and his 
work is pictured in the director's imagination, it is necessary to take 
into account not only the relationship between the script and art 
design but also the tatter's relationship with the other forms of 
depiction. Only when every scene in the film has been examined in 
the context of the other forms of depiction such as the acting, the 
shooting and the music, will it be possible to decide correctly 
whether the art designer is able to give true artistic expression to the 
screen representation. 

When in discussion with the art designer, the director should 
unfold the literary content through vivid expression rather than 
show him the plan which has already been prepared. After the art 
designer has submitted the rough outline, views should be 
exchanged and agreement reached on the conception. This will 
enable the screen interpretation to be perfected. Giving active 
guidance to the art designer in this process, so as to bring out his 
creative individuality, is of great significance in giving life to the 
screen interpretation in a unique manner. 

The director must give the art designer substantial assistance to 

help bring his conception to maturity and to keep his creative 
individuality alive, and must make sure that the interpretation 
through art design is harmonized with the other interpretations. 

The enthusiasm and talent of the art designer must be fused to 
those of all the other creative forces, but better results are achieved 
when they are united with the efforts of the group of actors in 

As the actor stands in the centre of the creative activity for 
cinematic portrayal, the director should see to it that the art designer 
respects the intentions of the actors and applies them to his creation. 
Thus the actors should be made to regard the faces of characters 
drawn by the art designer as their own and the costumes of the 
characters as their own too and, further, familiarize themselves with 
the sets, the properties and even decorative elements and live in that 
specific world. This enables the character portrayed by the actor to 
be united with that" depicted by art design. 

In his work with the art designer, the director must ensure that 
the artist does not pursue anything which is not connected with the 
screenplay or the director's conception. If the art designer strives for 
an effect simply to please himself, the actor will be restricted in his 
acting and the general atmosphere will be disturbed. Only when 
artistic depiction is created in keeping with the personality of the 
characters, environment and atmosphere, can it conform to the 
acting and can the screen portrayal as a whole be harmonized. 

The fundamental problem in the joint work of the director and 

art designer is to depict accurately the period and the nature of the 

In a film about the life of a saleswoman, the heroine was made 
to change her clothes a number of times for no particular reason, and 
in another film about life during the Fatherland Liberation War, the 
barracks of the US imperialist troops of aggression and the south 
Korean puppet army were shown as being too luxurious. These may 
seem to be trifles, but they are distortions of the truth, which destroy 
the realism of the production and, further, adversely affect people's 

The director must consider whether each design produced by the 
art designer accurately reflects the period and the situation, 
correctly reveals the socio-class essence of human nature, and 
pictorially and truthfully harmonizes the character and his 
environment; and he should guide his creative work in the right 
direction, making still greater demands on his artistic interpretation. 

Working with the art designer, the director should also evaluate 
the technical conditions of the film. An artistic depiction, however 
excellent, cannot be filmed if it does not meet the technical 
requirements adequately. Therefore, after the art designer has 
clearly set the main line of design interpretation of the film, the 
technical requirements must be decided upon without delay. This 
will enhance the quality of depiction in art design, while at the same 
time satisfying the corresponding technical requirements. 

In creating a visual interpretation, the cameraman is the 

director's main assistant, along with the art designer. 

The cameraman is the creator of images who, with a cinematic 
eye, assesses the portrayal by the actor and the artistic interpretation 
to be projected onto the screen and finally captures them on film. 

For the director, work with the cameraman is a major process 
which completes the screen interpretation. A film will be successful 
when this process is well done. 

The film as visualized by the director is transferred to the screen 
by the cameraman alone. The whole project will fail if the filming 
itself is not good even if there is a fine script and the acting is 
flawless. It can be said that skill can be used to make improvements 
in the stages after filming, but nothing can be done about scenes 
which have been missed or badly shot. 

The director must work closely with the cameraman from the 
time when he prepares the script, chooses the actors and visits the 
film locations. In the course of this work the director must help the 
cameraman to respond to the idea of the production and conceive a 
suitable screen interpretation in an original way, both of them 
unifying their respective conceptions. The cameraman can only 
reflect the directorial plan in the shooting script when he has 
responded to the idea of the production and assimilated the literary 
description and directorial conception and digested them 

The joint work of the director and the cameraman should be 
most intense when the scenes are drawn and filmed. Directorial and 

photographic conceptions appear as a specific depiction of life in 
scene drawings. In particular, the perfect union of directorial and 
photographic conceptions is achieved in a scene, so the scene can be 
considered to be the joint creation of the two artists. 

The director must guide the cameraman to discover and give 
prominence to the main features of the object at the filming stage, so 
that the photographic interpretation serves to give vivid expression 
to the ideological content of the production. Filming which does not 
do this is merely pleasing to the eye. It is the director's talent which 
expresses the excellent ideological content through impressive 

In order to give pictorial expression to the ideological content of 
the production, it is necessary to focus on the essential content of the 
scene, instead of just seeking visual effects in shooting. The 
ideological content of the production is to be found in the way the 
characters are played and is expressed through their actions. 
Therefore, in filming it is necessary to portray the characters and 
their life properly on the screen and the hero and his life in 
particular. A scene which does not show a full picture of life cannot 
contain an important idea. 

The director must make sure that the scenes contain only the 
essentials; he must subordinate all other matters related to shooting 
such as where the camera is to be placed and how the subject is to be 
viewed and from which angles and from what distance, to showing 
the hero and his life in an impressive way. 

Thanks to its ability to use time and space freely, the cinema can 
show life in rich and varied ways. But it is no easy matter to show 
only the essentials in the limited space of the screen and give a rich 
interpretation. The director should make sure that the cameraman, 
while focussing on the portrayal of the character, looks at him from 
different angles in many ways and that the camera moves to show 
even the least of his actions. 

The camera ought also to show life from different angles. It is 
necessary to show what is happening to the main characters in the 
foreground as well as the background. This background 
complements and emphasizes the foreground, while widening the 
scope of screen depiction and maintaining the special depth of the 
screen. The director must pay particular attention to showing life in 
a varied way from different visual points even in a single scene 
through free movements of the camera. 

The director should lead the cameraman to show the content of 
the scene expressively, while giving correct guidance to the work of 
depiction in order to enhance the pictorial quality of the scene. 
When the scene is well arranged artistically, the ideological content 
can be shown impressively. 

In enhancing the artistic quality of the scene it is important to 
ensure perspective and harmony. Everyone appreciates the beauty 
of an object according to whether there is harmony in form and 

If the director wishes to create the artistic scene which he wants, 

he should make the cameraman maintain the perspective of the 
scene by skilfully applying various depictive methods and should 
see to it that the art designer and the cameraman, through good 
teamwork, create a harmonious screen interpretation. The harmony 
of screen interpretation is achieved only through the complete 
fusion of artistic and photographic interpretations. 

From the very start of film-making to the filming, the director 
should help the cameraman and the art designer to create a fine 
screen interpretation, efficiently ensuring creative collaboration 
between the two. 


People experience no situation without sound nor life without 
music. Sound and music are heard wherever nature works and man 

There can be no vibrant life in a film which has no music and 
sound and, if there is no vibrant life, there can be no true 

In a film which gives a true picture of the way in which people 
see and hear things, music and sound are important ways of 
showing, more specifically and clearly, man's inmost thoughts and 
the way he lives and they add breadth and emotion to the ideological 
content. Music and sounds which conform with the situation and 
contain deep meaning play a tremendous part in increasing the 
ideological and artistic value of the film. 

The director has to work well with the composer and the 
sound-effects and sound engineers so that even a melody, a song or 
a sound gives people a clear picture of life and inspires profound 

In order to enhance the role of music in films, the composer must 
first produce a good piece of music; but the director should also 
have a good knowledge of music and use it to suit the film. If he 
knows a great deal about music, then he is able to consider, at the 
planning stage, what music is to be used in each scene, and he can 
have a good idea of the content and form and even the methods of 
using it. Furthermore, he can take the initiative in working with the 
composer, having a definite plan for the musical presentation. 

In his work with the composer, the director must be sure that the 
composer has a correct understanding of the production and that he 
responds enthusiastically to the ideological content. When this is 

the case, the composer can enter the world of the production, 
receive a creative stimulus from it and, on this basis, can create a 
musical interpretation which is appropriate to each scene. 
Therefore, the director has to guide him to work on the production 
with enthusiasm. 

On this basis the director must check that the composer's 
conception accurately reflects the requirements of the production, 
and that it agrees with his own intent regarding the musical 
interpretation, and he has to reach agreement on every problem, 
such as the subject, the nature of the melody, the form of the music 
and how it should be used. In this way he will exactly carry out his 
plan for directing the film. 

To listen to and assess the music is extremely important and is a 
responsible task for the director. If he neglects the assessment he 
may encounter difficulties at the dubbing stage. 

Once he has listened to the music, the director must clearly 
explain to the composer the good and bad points in the relation 
between it and the film as a whole, particularly the relation between 
individual scenes and the music, and must collaborate with him to 
seek means of correcting any faults, thereby bringing the musical 
score closer to the needs of each scene. However excellent the 
music, it is useless for the cinema if it is not appropriate to each 
scene. It is impossible to correct or replace scenes just because the 
music is good. In the cinema, the music must be appropriate to each 
scene. Then the screen representation will be effective and the 

music will be convincing and harmonized with each scene. 

In using music which is appropriate to each scene, the director 
should first pay particular attention to securing perfect harmony 
between the flow of the film and the music. When the flow of music 
is matched well with that of the drama, it is possible to depict the 
storyline in an emotional way while keeping the music alive. 

In editing the music to conform with each scene, the music 
should not rise to a crescendo or go quiet according to a superficial 
observation of life, nor should it be mechanically used merely to 
illustrate the storyline. It goes without saying that music should be 
used to intensify the atmosphere, but even then, it should be subject 
to the vivid depiction of the hero's emotions. 

One cannot always use stirring music in order to sing of life at a 
busy construction site, for example. At the construction site where 
dynamic labour efforts are made, the hero may meditate over the 
kindly care of the Party that has provided him with such a fine life. 
The music which flows from his heart can be lyrical. Or the hero 
may be moved by a stimulating emotion in a quiet atmosphere. The 
music which heightens his feelings can also be exciting. The 
director must fully understand the focus of the interpretation in the 
scene and use music which matches the hero's experience. This can 
show the situation more deeply and clearly. 

In the cinema it is important to keep the music consistent , while 
making it appropriate to each scene. If the music is interrupted too 
often, the content of the production cannot be depicted clearly 

through a consistent flow of emotion and the moods will lack 
uniformity, and in the long run, the musical interpretation will 
become confused. 

The director must guide the composer in such a way that he will 
direct the music from the beginning to the end of the film as the 
scenes require; at the same time, he must skilfully solve all 
problems which might arise between the musical and other creative 

When music follows the storyline of the film it can overlap an 
actor's words or blend with the sound effects. In a case like this, it is 
necessary to sustain whatever is meant to play the dominant role in 
clarifying the ideological content of the scenes, and anything 
subsidiary has to be made to support it If an attempt is made to 
sustain two kinds of sound on an equal basis, the harmony of the 
sound is destroyed and the main statement of the interpretation 
cannot be revealed properly. 

Fundamentally, different means of depiction used in 
expounding the ideological content of the scenes do not function in 
the same way in every scene. In one scene the music will be more 
important than the words and in another the sound effects will 
predominate. Therefore, it is necessary to give careful consideration 
to these means of expression which match each scene and, if one 
sound is more important than others, then these must be 
subordinated to it 

In using music throughout, one method is to use songs 

continually and to repeat good songs to suit the situation. 

When using songs which suit the scenes, the director must 
ensure that they fit naturally into the flow of the various scenes. As 
for a good song in particular, the more often it is repeated in 
conformity with the situation in a number of scenes, the more 
emotionally and richly it adds to the content of the production and 
the more it can be sustained. 

Music cannot be employed without any reason, just because it is 
good to use it continually. When music is heard where it is not 
appropriate, it sounds tedious and the scene becomes awkward. 
Music must only be used when conditions have been provided for it 
to arise. Then the scenes can be sustained, so can the music itself, 
and the audience can hear it with a sense of peace. 

The reason for music to be used should be provided by both the 
content and the form. If music is to be used naturally in any scene, 
there should be a motive for the development of the event; the 
thoughts and feelings of the character should be built up and a 
lifelike atmosphere should also be created. Moreover, the images 
and content should be properly harmonized and the depth and scope 
of the scene should also be appropriate. 

The director should make sure that the musical interpretations of 
all the scenes are harmonized in a coordinated manner, while 
making use of a variety of music and songs, in keeping with each 
scene. If music and songs are used disjointedly, it is impossible to 
achieve the harmony of the musical interpretation as a whole. 

Complete musical harmony can only be achieved throughout the 
film when the theme music and theme songs in the film are 
complemented by other music and songs, with precedence being 
given to the theme music and songs. 

The director must pay particular attention to the proper use of 
sound, as well as music and songs. 

In place of words and actions, in the cinema sound can subtly 
reveal the characters' ideas and emotions and changes in their 
psychological state; it can also describe the surroundings and 
atmosphere of life in an emotional and lively way. ' Sound can also 
be used to amplify the story and connect one shot to another; it can 
be used in the definition of emotions, fused to other elements of 
interpretation and it can influence the creation of the flow of the 
film. The reason for the use of sound and how it will be used to add 
to the film are determined by the director's intentions. 
If he is to create realistic and interpretive sound effects, the director 
must have a comprehensive knowledge of sound. He must know a 
wide range of sounds which can depict life and understand the 
meaning of all these sounds and the emotions they evoke. 

The thrilling whistle of an electric locomotive pulling into a 
station with a load of thousands of tons, is not just a whistle to most 
people. They think of it as the triumphant announcement of an 
accident-free journey, an ardent call for a new surge forward in 
work. To those who love labour, sounds that echo during 
worthwhile work are not just the sounds of machines. This is why 

the sounds of creative work are often compared with a great 

People also give way to their emotions when they hear the 
beautiful sounds of nature. Hearing the song of the skylark, the 
harbinger of spring, they think about ploughing, and hearing the 
hooting of an owl in the dead of night, they become melancholy. 

Many sounds rouse people's emotions because they are all 
concerned with life. A director who knows the meaning of various 
sounds which are linked to real life, can use sound effectively and 
he can use any sound to reflect the feelings of our people. 

The director must know how to use the sounds with which he is 
familiar and which he remembers from his own life, in keeping 
with each scene. When suited to the scene, sounds express the 
inmost thoughts of the characters and can create a typical depiction 
of their surroundings and bring the scene to life, by expressing it in 
greater detail and in a variety of ways. 

Of the various sounds which may be heard in the scene, the 
director must give greatest prominence to the main sound which is 
most suited to the situation, and through it, show the character's 
inmost thoughts and identify the surroundings and the atmosphere. 
Then, a perfect harmony of pictures and sound can be achieved and 
the descriptive advantages of sounds be used to the full. 

In order to use them to suit the scenes, it is necessary to make 
artistic changes to natural sounds. Not all the sounds one hears are 
artistic, and they do not all need to be used as they are in the film. If 

the director approaches the matter of sound with the idea that 
lightning brings thunder and that when a train moves only the sound 
of the wheels is heard, there will be no artistic or meaningful use of 
sound in the film. Sound in the cinema must always be expressive. 

The director must give an artistic gloss to sound according to the 
requirements of the scene and what he wants to convey and alter 
such elements of natural sound as its volume and tone. However, the 
individual character of each sound must be retained. If this is not 
done, the special qualities of the sound will be lost. Therefore, all 
the elements of natural sound should be transformed to meet the 
requirements of the scenes, but the individual character of the sound 
must be retained. 

In order to use sound to suit each scene, it is necessary to make 
good use of methods of expression according to real life and the 
features of sound. In films the volume of sound may be increased or 
exaggerated intentionally, or only one sound may be used by muting 
all the other sounds which might be heard in one scene, or all sound 
may be suppressed in another scene. The question is how the director 
makes good use of various methods of expressing sounds in keeping 
with the content of the scenes and the natural properly of sound. 

As the cinematic expression of sound is made directly by the 
sound-effects and sound engineers, the director must work closely 
with them. However, he must not become obsessed with technical 
matters in the use of sound. Cinematic expression of sound is 
effected through complex technical processes, but technical matters 

are not the concern of the director. 

Sound is art. The director must always pay attention to artistic 
matters such as the orientation of sound expression, the relations 
between each scene and sound, the choice of sound and its artistic use. 

Only a director who is well-versed in the secret of musical and 
sound expressions and knows how to work closely with the artists 
engaged in this sphere, can use the proper sounds whose nature is 
distinct and which harmonize with each scene. 


Usually a film consists of hundreds of shots which contain 
fragments of life. Editing, which connects all these shots, plays an 
important role in creating a cinematic interpretation. 

Editing is a means of linking the shots so that the drama flows 
logically in accordance with real life, and thus an integrated 

cinematic interpretation is created. Through editing the director can 
select and emphasize only those aspects of the complexities of life 
that are essential, or he can combine both general and specific 
depictions of life. Also, through editing the director can develop a 
consistent plot by combining the characters' actions and the events 
contained in the shots and perfect the composition and secure the 
complete harmony of the interpretation. The secret of editing is to 
create diverse emotional changes, yet achieve a single cinematic 
flow in the film as a whole. 

Editing constitutes an effective means of creation for the 
director because of the diverse and leading role it has in 
interpretation. Even with shots that have the same plot, editing can 
either make the storyline develop logically and flow naturally or 
disrupt it so much that the thread of the story can be followed only 
with difficulty. It is only the director that knows how to use to the 
full the abundant possibilities for expression that editing provides 
who can move people by depicting life clearly and convincingly. 
Throughout the whole course of making the film, the director must 
not cease to consider the work from the editing point of view for one 
single moment and must always enhance the part played by editing 
in interpretation by exploring new possibilities. 

From as early as the conception of a film onwards, the director 
should think how to use the possibilities of editing for expression to 
the full. 

Some people regard editing as a creative process that happens 

after filming. They are mistaken. Editing is by no means just 

Editing is a form of interpretation that is a product of the film 
director's thoughts and a method of artistic popularization. The 
ability to consider matters from the editing point of view enables the 
director to approach the situation analytically and comprehensively 
in line with the characteristics of a film and to construct each shot 
and combine separate ones flexibly so that an integrated succession 
of shots is produced. No director can adapt literature through a film 
interpretation and properly sustain those expressive elements that 
are peculiar to the cinema without focussing on editing. 

Editing is conducted on the basis of the directorial conception. 
The editorial continuity that was settled in this conception is 
established in the script and realized during filming. Therefore, 
editing after filming should be based on the editorial interpretation 
that was settled when the literary interpretation was studied and the 
concept developed. 

At the stage of conception the director should be interested in 
how the shots in each scene are to be arranged and connected, while 
at the same time making every effort to solve the greater problems, 
such as how to include only the essence of life in each shot, how to 
logically and clearly develop the storyline and how to steer the flow 
of the film along the same lines as the plot. 

The director should pay great attention to editing even during 
filming. Whilst the fuming is being done he should already be 

creating the speed and rhythm at which the shots that are arranged in 
the director's script flow and should also provide the occasions for 
the switch from one shot to the next, taking into account the fact that 
they have to be connected. The director should pay particular 
attention to the editing that must be done within individual scenes 
by directing the movement of the camera, because this must be 
determined during the filming itself. 

Since the editorial interpretation of a film is ultimately determined 
and completed after filming, the director should closely examine 
every shot and develop an orderly flow of those shots that are 
essential to the film. The director is an artist behind the scenes, but his 
artistic and ideological opinions, personality and talent are seen on 
the screen. Therefore, the director should show great caution in 
selecting only those shots that are essential, with the attitude that he is 
responsible to our times and the people for each shot. 

What is important in editing a film is to arrange and connect 
shots logically. When editing conforms with the natural progression 
of life, the flow of the film will be realistic and lively. 

The director can develop an editorial flow in accordance with 
logic, when he sets out correctly the cause and effect of each 
developing event and its absolute necessity, while accurately 
depicting the actions of the characters involved. Therefore, 
determining the length and scope of every shot and creating the 
occasions to connect them and switch from one to the other, 
selecting the colour and shade of each shot, and deciding the various 

movements of the camera and their speed — all these must be subject 
to the personality of the characters and the requirements of true-life 

In editing, it is particularly necessary to link shots in exact 
accordance with logic. If the shots are to be geared perfectly to each 
other, they should be connected according to cause and effect. The 
first shot should be made the cause which produces the second and 
the second shot should be the result of the first and at the same time 
be the cause of the third. 

However, the logical connection of the shots which contain the 
cause and effect of the characters' actions and of the events is not 
always successive. In the cinema it is not unusual for a shot to 
follow another one despite the fact that they are not directly related 
and even though the effect of an action or an event in the first shot 
may be shown later. Of course, it is not the case that the cause and 
effect of the character's action and the event disappear just because 
the shots which show the cause and effect are not directly linked. 

Even in real life, sometimes an effect does not appear 
immediately after an action and event take place. At times, actions 
and events develop and at times different episodes which are not 
directly related become entwined. In the cinema, too, on the basis of 
the possibility of freely using time and space, the line of the 
character's action and an event can be developed along a number of 
paths, which may cross each other or run parallel, or even turn back 
through retrospection. 

If the director thinks only of the logical connection of shots and 
simply links in sequence the shots which are the cause and effect of 
actions and events, he will be unable to depict life with its 
complications and diversity in a lively and interesting way, and in 
consequence, the flow of the film will be dry and flat. 

In editing, the connection of shots according to cause and effect 
should be handled by various forms and methods, based on life and 
the requirements of film presentation. The forms and methods that 
are to be used should be based on logic, but in any case, shots should 
not follow one after another without interruption, simply showing 
the character's actions and the events but without revealing the 
course of their development and their effect. 

Connection according to cause and effect is a principle of 
editing; but, when it is used mechanically and a pattern is set, life is 
depicted dryly. On the other hand, if such connection is ignored and 
a diversity of connection is insisted on, editing becomes formalistic, 
rejecting the law of life. It is only when cause and effect and 
diversity are combined in linking shots that the film can portray the 
inevitable development of life naturally. 

The director's views should be clearly manifested in editing. 
Artistic presentation is achieved by the union of objectivity and 
subjectivity. Realism is a method of depicting life objectively, and 
yet it opposes the tendency to approach life coldly and demands that 
the writer takes a positive attitude to life. 

The director must not approach the characters and their lives 

with the attitude of an onlooker and arrange or connect the shots 
mechanically, instead of exploring the world of drama carefully. He 
should have creative ardour and approach the characters and their 
lives with warmth and should introduce emotional rhythm of his 
own into the arrangement and connection of the shots. 

In editing the director should skilfully apply methods such as 
symbolism, association of ideas, and illusion to express the ideas 
and emotions of the characters. 

If he is too particular about the logic of actions and events in 
editing, he will be unable to conceive different editorial methods to 
show emotionally and profoundly the inmost thoughts of the 
characters, and consequently, the flow of the film will be sterile and 
stiff. The insert which is used in the cinema to give a symbolic 
meaning is not related directly to the character or the event, but it is 
an essential element in revealing emotionally the mental state of the 
character and emphasizing the ideological content of the drama. 

The supplementary shots used to depict more clearly and 
delicately the inmost thoughts of the characters should accord with 
their ideological and emotional state and their moods and yet be 
dear and simple. Those which can be understood not by the 
audience but only understood and enjoyed by the director are not 
only entirely meaningless, but also obstruct the clarification of the 
characters' ideas and emotions and the achievement of the 
emotional flow of the film. 

The director should pay dose attention to using supplementary 

shots which are easy to understand and appropriate in revealing the 
characters' ideas and emotions. As for the inserts, they should not 
be employed whenever something is needed to fill in gaps in the 
development of a story. The flow of a film becomes disrupted when 
the director abuses the inclusion of supplementary shots which are 
not suitable to the emotional depiction of the characters' inmost 
thoughts and whose meaning is ambiguous. 

In film editing the importance of the director's subjective views 
should be emphasized, but not too much. If in editing logic and film 
grammar are ignored and only the director's subjective views are 
brought to the fore, the film will become superficial. This 
superficiality in editing means that shots are not connected as logic 
and film grammar require, but are patched together entirely on the 
basis of the directors subjective views and only some abstract 
impressions tend to be stressed. Film editing is influenced by the 
director's experience and intentions, but they should be based 
strictly on life itself. 

Through skilful editing the director should draw the audience 
into the world of the production and lead them to accept the life 
depicted on the screen as it is and warmly respond to it. The creative 
strength of editing is that it captures the hearts of the whole 
audience, each member of which is an individual with his own 
particular tastes in art. 

If the attention of the audience is to be concentrated solely on the 
story developing on the screen, the flow of the film should be well 

organized, while at the same time developing the characters' 
diverse emotions harmoniously, so that the flow of shots progresses 
with vigour and it should be provided with variety and elasticity. 

Obviously, it will not do to keep creating dramatic tension 
simply to give elasticity to the flow of the film. If the audience is 
subjected to too much tension, they will be unable to understand 
fully the content of the production and, moreover, they will feel 
tired. On the other hand, if the shots progress sluggishly, the 
audience will become bored and their minds will wander. In the 
final analysis, both extremes hamper the efforts to draw the 
audience into the world of the production and clearly convince them 
of its content. 

In the realm of the arts it is imperative to handle with caution 
any matter that influences the ideas and feelings of people. The 
director must not force the audience to cry because the hero cries, 
nor should he be so insolent as to expect them to watch the 
performance to the end although it is tedious. The director should 
know how to use his creative ability and talent to touch the 
heartstrings of the audience. Whatever the situation, he should 
never forget the audience. 

In the art of making revolutionary films, the ideological 
relations between the director and the audience should be pure and 
solid, and a noble moral attitude of respect and trust between them 
should be established. 


In cinematic creation it is important to clarify the position and 
duties of the assistant director and to enhance his role. This is not a 
matter simply concerned with an administrative post but is a matter 
of somebody actually engaged in film-making. So, without finding 
the right solution to this problem, it is impossible to direct the 
creative group satisfactorily. 

At one time the question of the role of the assistant director was 
hotly disputed in the cinematic world. In fact, the role of the assistant 
director was not clearly defined in the past; as a result, at a meeting to 
review a production, one assistant director went so far as to raise the 
question, "Is the assistant director a creative worker, too?" 

The debate about the role of the assistant director was caused by 
the fact that a scientific system of film-making had not been 
established and the position, duties and role of the assistant director 
had not been accurately defined. 

There is no other creative sphere that is carried out on such a 
large scale and whose content is so complex as film-making. 

Film-making is not undertaken by one person as is the case in 
writing a novel or a poem; it is done by teamwork involving many 
artists, and the process is extremely complex. The creative work of 
the director is on a particularly wide scale. However able he may be, 
it is beyond his power to undertake a huge amount of creative 
assignments without the help of other members of the creative team. 
Hence, the post of assistant director is necessary to support and 
assist the director in his creative work. 

Originally, the post of assistant director was established under 
the capitalist system of film-making. But under this System the 
"assistant director" is not a creative worker. Like other artists, the 
"assistant director" is tied to the purse-strings of the tycoons of the 
film-making industry. Moreover, he is not allowed to express any 
views of his own in the course of creation; he is just a sort of 
"servant" who blindly carries out the instructions of the "director" 
and even has to attend him in his private life. He is in the position of 
a humble lackey who liaises between the director and other people 
and curries favour with them. In short, he may be called a servant, 
shackled to both the film-making industrialists and the "director". 

The problem of the role of the assistant director has been raised 
already under the capitalist system of film-making, but it could not 
be solved correctly in a capitalist society where money rules 
everything. Even in a socialist society, when the remnants of 
capitalism still survived in the sphere of film-making and a socialist 
system of film-making had still not been completely established, the 

problem of the assistant director's position and role remained to be 
solved properly. 

It is because of the old viewpoint left over by the capitalist 
system of film -making that the assistant director was regarded as a 
person who attends the director and carries the actors' costumes and 

It is also wrong to regard the assistant director as a person who has 
failed to become a director or as a trainee director. To consider him 
as an apprentice, learning techniques, and to assume that his 
position is an intermediary one while training to become a director, 
is tantamount to not regarding him as a creative worker. 

Under the socialist system of film-making, the assistant director 
carries out in all matters the duties of a true assistant director. Like 
other members of the creative team, the assistant director has a 
sphere of creation assigned to him and the important duty of 
carrying out film-making. 

The assistant director himself should organize and help to put 
into effect the film-making activities of the creative group, give 
guidance to the acting and also should be responsible for their 
costumes and properties. 

The creative group may include a number of assistant directors, 
among them the first assistant director should undertake the role of 
the chief of staff and should directly organize and put into effect the 
work of making the film. 

In order to produce a film, organizational and financial work for 

the artistic creation should be done first and the production should 
be provided with the right material and technical support. What is 
more important here is the organizational work for artistic creation- 
This is complex and responsible work to plan the activities of the 
creative group and arrange their teamwork in detail. Therefore, it 
should not be undertaken by different people alternately or done at 
random. When there is a specialized post responsible for the 
organizational work for artistic creation, it is possible to increase 
film-making activity efficiently. 

This organizational work should be done by the first assistant 
director who, along with the director, is well acquainted with all 
matters concerning the creative group and is able to control, 
organize and put them into effect in a coordinated manner. 
Therefore, since the director is the commander of the group, it is 
reasonable for the first assistant director to perform the role of the chief 
of staff. Based on this requirement of cinematic creation, we defined 
the first assistant director as the chief of staff of the creative group. 

The first assistant director or chief of staff, should control the 
artistic organization in the work of cinematic creation as a whole, 
then ensure that it is organized from an administrative point of view 
and should provide adequate material and technical conditions at 
the right time. Then, on the basis of the conditions for creation 
provided by the chief of staff, the director, the commander of the 
creative group, can take the right decisions and successfully 
command the creative battles. 

Only when the first assistant director arranges without error and 
efficiently carries out the organizational work for artistic creation, 
can the creative group work in an orderly manner and produce an 
excellent film in a short time using a small amount of manpower, 
funds and materials. 

The first assistant director should always be well acquainted 
with the abilities and readiness of all the members of the creative 
group and make precise judgements in any situation, thereby 
developing the work on his own initiative. If the chief of staff 
wavers, does not have his own opinions and makes no active 
contribution to the work, he will be unable to guarantee that the 
work will be done in different units of the creative group or by the 
individual members, and what is more, he will waste time, being 
called here and there to do only petty things. The assistant director, 
who is the chief of staff, should have his own opinions and boldly 
organize and put into effect the creative activities, just like the 

The assistant director is an independent creative worker. His main 
duty as such is to offer dependable support to the director in his 
creative work, and help him to produce a good film in accordance 
with the demands of the times and the aspirations of the people. 

Just because he is an independent creative worker, the assistant 
director must not carry out creative work at will, moving away from 
the director's creative conception. He should always work towards 
correctly embodying the director's creative plan. Only then can he 

be a creative worker who gives substantial help to the director. 

One of the main duties of the assistant director is to work closely 
with the actors. 

Once, some assistant directors tried to make films even though 
they were unable to give proper guidance to the actors. Anyone who 
does not know how to conduct creative work well with actors, 
however educated in literature and well-versed in other means of 
cinematic presentation, is not qualified to be a director. 

The basis of directing is the work with the actors. Just as 
directorial work is inconceivable unless the director works with the 
actors, so the assistant director's work on interpretation to assist the 
director in his creative work is inconceivable unless he too works 
with the actors. If the assistant director is to ensure that he supports 
the director adequately and helps him well in his creative activities, 
he should work closely with the actors. 

The director puts a great effort into guiding the acting of the 
leading actors, whilst being aware of the work of all the actors, whereas 
the assistant director should guide those actors assigned minor and 
extra roles, while being involved in the individual guidance of all the 
actors. In the cinema the acting is guided to completion by the joint 
efforts of the director and the assistant director. 

The assistant director's work with the actors should not be 
confined to the period when the film is made, but should be 
continued without interruption in their routine training as actors. 
The assistant director should live together with actors and give 

responsible and regular guidance to them in the course of their 
training as actors. For the assistant director, his routine creative 
activities with the actors are a process of accumulating experience 
for guiding the acting well during film-making and preparing 
himself better as an independent artist. 

On the basis of his profound understanding of the actors' 
political and ideological preparedness and their abilities, the 
assistant director should map out a long-term plan for raising their 
standard of acting and give scientific guidance to their acting. 
Meanwhile, he should have a deeper understanding of the principles 
and methods of work with the actors and steadily enhance his own 
level of acting guidance. 

The assistant director should be knowledgeable also about the 
actors' costumes and hand props. 

Since his main task is to work with the actors, the assistant 
director should be familiar with their costumes and hand props, 
which are important tools for the actors in playing their parts. 
Obviously, when guiding the actor, the assistant director should be 
mainly concerned with the actor's experience of the character's life 
and his portrayal, particularly with how he expresses this in word 
and action. However, if the actor is to portray a realistic person, he 
should make good use of costumes and hand props and the assistant 
director should be interested in them, whilst concentrating great 
efforts on solving his main tasks in the guidance of acting. 

The assistant director should have a dear understanding ' of the 

historical period and the class position, tastes and hobbies of the 
persons represented by each piece of costume and hand prop, and 
should guide the actors to use them to suit their roles. 

The assistant director should be as knowledgeable about 
costumes and hand props as a folklorist. Then he can give 
substantial guidance to the actor in his creative work and help him 
to portray a real human being in the film. 

When a production is made to reflect life in olden days, new 
actors may not know very well what sort of footwear they have to 
put on and what sort of clothes they have to wear to play their parts. 
In such a case, the art designer may study the matter and be able to 
solve the problem but, only when the assistant director who guides 
the acting is familiar with the life and customs of the age 
represented in the production, can he pick out period costume and 
hand props suited to the personalities of the characters and thus 
dress the actors properly. 

If he is to be knowledgeable about costume and hand props, the 
assistant director should fully understand the script and the 
director's script and, at the same time, have special knowledge of 
history and folklore and should also have a profound knowledge of 
the fine arts. Only then can he establish his own independent 
opinions as a creative worker and help the director in his creative 
work the way he should. 

A true assistant director finds his creative work of loyally 
assisting the director in his creative activities worthwhile, so that the 
latter creates an excellent cinematic presentation. 

KIM IL SUNG and KIM JONG IL e-library 
Korean Friendship Association (KFA)